The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights. The Supreme Court of the United States has ruled that the right belongs to individuals, while also ruling that the right is not unlimited and does not prohibit all regulation of either firearms or similar devices. State and local governments are limited to the same extent as the federal government from infringing this right, per the incorporation of the Bill of Rights.
The Second Amendment was based partially on the right to keep and bear arms in English common law and was influenced by the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Sir William Blackstone described this right as an auxiliary right, supporting the natural rights of self-defense and resistance to oppression, and the civic duty to act in concert in defense of the state.While both James Monroe and John Adams supported the Constitution being ratified, its most influential framer was James Madison. In Federalist No. 46, Madison wrote how a federal army could be kept in check by state militias, "a standing army ... would be opposed [by] a militia." He argued that state militias "would be able to repel the danger" of a federal army, "It may well be doubted, whether a militia thus circumstanced could ever be conquered by such a proportion of regular troops." He confidently contrasted the federal government of the United States to the European kingdoms, which he contemptuously described as "afraid to trust the people with arms." He assured his fellow citizens that they need never fear their government because "besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition".By January 1788, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and Connecticut ratified the Constitution without insisting upon amendments. Several specific amendments were proposed, but were not adopted at the time the Constitution was ratified. For example, the Pennsylvania convention debated fifteen amendments, one of which concerned the right of the people to be armed, another with the militia. The Massachusetts convention also ratified the Constitution with an attached list of proposed amendments. In the end, the ratification convention was so evenly divided between those for and against the Constitution that the federalists agreed to amendments to assure ratification. Samuel Adams proposed that the Constitution:

Be never construed to authorize Congress to infringe the just liberty of the press, or the rights of conscience; or to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms; or to raise standing armies, unless when necessary for the defence of the United States, or of some one or more of them; or to prevent the people from petitioning, in a peaceable and orderly manner, the federal legislature, for a redress of their grievances: or to subject the people to unreasonable searches and seizures.In United States v. Cruikshank (1876), the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that, "The right to bear arms is not granted by the Constitution; neither is it in any manner dependent upon that instrument for its existence. The Second Amendments means no more than that it shall not be infringed by Congress, and has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the National Government" and thus limited the scope of the Second Amendment's protections to the federal government. In United States v. Miller (1939), the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment did not protect weapon types not having a "reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia".In the twenty-first century, the amendment has been subjected to renewed academic inquiry and judicial interest. In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), the Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision that held the amendment protects an individual right to possess and carry firearms. In McDonald v. Chicago (2010), the Court clarified its earlier decisions that limited the amendment's impact to a restriction on the federal government, expressly holding that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment incorporates the Second Amendment against state and local governments. In Caetano v. Massachusetts (2016), the Supreme Court reiterated its earlier rulings that "the Second Amendment extends, prima facie, to all instruments that constitute bearable arms, even those that were not in existence at the time of the founding" and that its protection is not limited to "only those weapons useful in warfare".Despite these decisions, the debate between various organizations regarding gun control and gun rights continues.

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  1. bentoncity

    Washington  Support a new Governor that supports the 2nd Amendment?

    Just got this from Brubaker Arms in Yakima. (Professional Gunsmith) 1st I've heard someone with common sense and supports the 2A is going to run for the governors office in 2020. I 'suspect' ferguson is going to pitch his worthless rear end in or maybe inslee...
  2. RicInOR

    Other State  Needles CA - Sancturary City for 2nd Amendment

    California Town Declares Itself A '2nd Amendment Sanctuary City' California town wants to be a sanctuary -- for gun owners Was Spike, Snoopy's brother, from Needles? "Spike lives alone in a cactus, in the middle of the desert near Needles, California, "
  3. RicInOR

    National  BRADLEY BEERS v. USA 2nd Amendment violation?

    BRADLEY BRADLEY BEERS; JOSEPH DIVITA; JOSEPH DIVITA -v- USA In 2005, Bucks County, Pa. man is involuntarily hospitalized after threatening suicide, putting a gun in his mouth. He's had no mental health treatment since 2006, and, in 2013, a doctor said he could safely handle firearms. Does the...
  4. Ura-Ki

    Here is the Play book of the Anti 2nd movement!

    VPC - The Violence Policy Center - Assault Weapons and Accessories in America Super long and boring read, but this is the play book of most of the anti 2nd folks, with all their bullet points, stats, facts, specs, definitions, and all the other false narrative they pull out to use against us...
  5. Vrod

    Oregon  Granddaughter is 2nd Amendment Advocate

    After 5 years of trying to get our granddaughter out of a bad situation in California, she's 14 now, we have succeeded in achieving legal custody and a few weeks ago brought her up to Oregon. Although thinking about it, what situation isn't bad living in California? Our granddaughter is very...
  6. mrblond

    National  Amazon giving a helping hand for the 2nd.

    as Anti gun as Amazon seems to be, if you use them and have a Smile account, you can help out groups like SAF This is your quarterly AmazonSmile Impact Report for Oct 1 - Dec 31, 2018. This report recaps your recent AmazonSmile activities and the donations you've generated for charity. Your...
  7. arakboss

    Oregon  Get ready for April 2nd. OFF says hearing on Firearm bills coming.

    Check this link frequently and look for 4/2 date under meetings drop down: Judiciary Senate 2019 Regular Session - Oregon Legislative Information System Anti Gun Bills Scheduled - Oregon Firearms Federation Potential bills that could come up from OFF's list: SB 5 Imposes strict liability...
  8. awshoot

    National  Hawaii Senators Seek 2A Repeal

    Hawaii signs resolution to repeal the Second Amendment The article indicates a Hawaii Senate resolution to request that the US Congress propose amending the 2A (there's a mouthful) has passed but the HI Legislature's page shows only that it was offered: Measure Status And it was only signed...
  9. gene of oregon

    National  Gun Control Bill Would Restrict Vets' 2nd Amendment Rights

    I knew this was going to eventually come about. This really F---ing pisses me off!! The liberal left really don't know how F---ing close they are to a civil uprising the way their headed!! Gun Control Bill Would Restrict Vets' 2nd Amendment Rights, Lawmaker Says
  10. RicInOR

    National  2nd Amendment Rights for Young(er) Adults

    much good thought at this link: Second Amendment Rights of Young People Couple more articles linked below:
  11. Jerry

    Washington  2nd Amendment Rally Woodland Saturday Feb 23

    There will be a rally in Woodland at Horseshoe Lake Park on Saturday at noon. Please show up if you can. It's to show support for the Cowlitz County commissioners and the Cowlitz Sheriff for their constitutional stand against I-1639. There was an article in The Reflector newspaper yesterday...
  12. joken

    Oregon City Police and Benchmade destroy guns

    Oregon City Police I suppose this is the PC thing for them to do. I don't think Benchmade should have got involved though.
  13. rdb241

    National  House Democrats Plan Vote to Criminalize Private Gun Sales This Week

    This is truely a full on assault against the 2nd amendment. House Democrats Plan Vote to Criminalize Private Gun Sales This Week
  14. rdb241

    A very powerful 2nd amendment speech

  15. Cerberus Group

    Cerberus Training Group - 2nd Annual NWFA Members Training Weekend

    Back by popular demand! 2nd Annual NWFA Members Training Weekend August 2-4 Special priced training for NWFA members. Last year was a great three days for me, I met such wonderful people. Working with Joe the NWFA Forum owner this year, we will be presenting the 2nd annual members training...
  16. RicInOR

    National  Federal Courts on 2nd Amendment

    Federal Circuits and the Second Amendment in 2018 Summary of some rulings
  17. Joe Link

    Washington  Gun rights advocates rally to defend 2nd Amendment

    Gun rights advocates rally to defend 2nd Amendment
  18. Joe Link

    National  Conservative Supreme Court majority says it will hear 2nd Amendment case

    Conservative Supreme Court majority to hear 2nd Amendment case - CNNPolitics
  19. DuneHopper

    New Book: The 2nd Civil Right

    2/2/2019 Update, Please Read. The new version both Kindle and Paperback are updated. Both the Kindle and Paper Back can be found here . IMPORTANT: If you already purchased a Kindle version this is how you update it. Its Free to Do So ! Update Kindle books...
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