Canada (/ˈkænədə/; French: [ɑ]) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest metropolis is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.
Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French claims were made on the area, with the colony of Canada first being established by the French in 1537. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost territories within British North America until it was left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the semi-autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
In 1931, Canada achieved near total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 removed the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a developed country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a Commonwealth realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

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  1. ATCclears

    Agricultural destruction in BC, and consumer prices on some items in Northwest

    BC got hit hard on the weekend. Highways, rail lines, and now agricultural/food production. It makes me wonder if it will result in more sales to BC from suppliers in the US Northwest, and hence price increases here if BC consumers are effectively willing to pay more just to get the items...
  2. ATCclears

    After a recent wildfire in BC, a reminder that you are on your own

    Be prepared - whether earthquake, wildfire, riot, or other. This is near Monte Lake, BC in the BC Interior.
  3. ATCclears

    BC - COVID "audits"/roadblocks

    Your papers, comrade?...
  4. ATCclears

    Vancouver, BC - 1 dead, six injured after mass stabbing at Library

    Ban the knife!...

    Canadian Murders

    Weird story out of Northern Canada of the three people murdered by the teen suspects who are on the run. I hope they are found and 'stopped' soon.......
  6. DB is Here

    International  Police shut down alleged gun manufacturing operation in gun control-heavy Canada

    Police shut down alleged gun manufacturing operation in gun control-heavy Canada
  7. Joe Link

    International  Should Canada ban assault-style firearms?

    Should Canada ban assault-style firearms?
  8. DuneHopper

    International  Report: U.S. Firearms & Ammunition Trade Numbers with Canada & Mexico

    NAFTA: U.S. Firearms and Ammunition Trade with Canada and Mexico
  9. RicInOR

    International  Canada - to look at 'full ban' on handguns, assault weapons

    Liberals to look at 'full ban' on handguns, assault weapons | CBC News ref: International - Toronto mayor calls for gun control in wake of deadly shooting International - Toronto government moves quickly to ban sale of handguns & handgun ammo International - Toronto Shooting: Does Canada...
  10. Joe Link

    International  Canada Is Raging Against Gun Violence - But Not Like America

    Toronto Shooting Reignites Canada's Gun-Control Debate - The Atlantic
  11. Joe Link

    International  Illegal guns sourced in Canada surge compared to those smuggled from U.S.

    Illegal guns sourced in Canada surge compared to those smuggled from U.S. - Surrey Now-Leader
  12. Joe Link

    International  Toronto mayor calls for gun control in wake of deadly shooting

    Toronto mayor calls for gun control in wake of deadly shooting
  13. Joe Link

    International  Toronto Shooting: Does Canada Have a Gun Control Problem?

    Toronto shooting: Does Canada have a gun control problem?
  14. awshoot

    International  Toronto, Canada: Mass Shooting (July 23, 2018)

    I'm surprised not to see this yet, so here it is: Toronto mass shooting suspect identified as Faisal Hussain
  15. ditchtiger


    I've read war history for many years but have never heard of this fellow. Was up late not able to sleep and found this. Francis Pegahmagabow, best sniper of WWI. 378 KILLS: CANADA PRODUCES TOP SNIPER IN WW1 | The Royal Montreal Regiment I thought it was interesting enough to share.
  16. D

    Importing a truck from Canada to Washington

    Hey all! Being as most of us here reside in the PNW, I was wondering if anyone has any first hand experience importing a vehicle from Canada to the USA. I am looking at purchasing (financing) a late model Ford truck from a private party in Vancouver, CA. I've done some research but can't get...
  17. RicInOR

    International  Canada- Grace Period -vs- Jail for late FA license renewal

    I would have put CA in headline, but you'd all mistake that for CA wouldn't you. Good news for our Canadian readers Gun owners to get 6-month grace period when licence expires Canada's gun-owners will no longer have to worry about facing a jail term if they are a few days or week late in...
  18. DaveLikesGuns

    Sauvie Island, Canada Goose, 2017

    Hello NWFA! Canada Goose season is Sep 9-17. Anyone gonna be hunting on Sauvie Island? I'm a first timer at any kind of Waterfowl hunting and I'd appreciate some tips. What time of day is best? What Unit's have you had luck in? How much camo is really necessary? Should I get a Canada Goose...
  19. hztbvy

    Hello from Ontario Canada

    Love long distance target and black powder. Am an avid deer, moose and bear hunter; am also a founding director in our regional QDMA branch. Nice to meet you all virtually here :)
  20. ATCclears

    Wildfires in BC

    10,000+ evacuated now. Williams Lake being evacuated as flames get closer; residents en route to Kamloops - Kamloops This Week In a different area of BC, multiple communities may lose their electricity. If it goes down, it will probably be out for at least a month. Wildfire threatens North...
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