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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries still extant at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of the Second World War only twenty-one years later.
The war drew in all the world's economic great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.
The trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, and entangled international alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. Within weeks the major powers were at war, and the conflict soon spread around the world.
Russia was the first to order a partial mobilization of its armies on 24-25 July, and when on 28 July Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia declared general mobilization on 30 July. Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Being outnumbered on the Eastern Front, Russia urged its Triple Entente ally France to open up a second front in the west. Over forty years earlier in 1870, the Franco-Prussian War had ended the Second French Empire and France had ceded the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to a unified Germany. Bitterness over that defeat and the determination to retake Alsace-Lorraine made the acceptance of Russia's plea for help an easy choice, so France began full mobilisation on 1 August and, on 3 August, Germany declared war on France. The border between France and Germany was heavily fortified on both sides so, according to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France from the north, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany on 4 August due to their violation of Belgian neutrality. After the German march on Paris was halted in the Battle of the Marne, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army led a successful campaign against the Austro-Hungarians, but the Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia in the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917.
The Russian government collapsed in March 1917, and a revolution in November followed by a further military defeat brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which granted the Germans a significant victory. After a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. On 4 November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to an armistice, and Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.
By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. National borders were redrawn, with 9 independent nations restored or created, and Germany's colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four (Britain, France, the United States and Italy) imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation (particularly in Germany) eventually contributed to the start of World War II.
Winchester m1917 p14 30-06 rifle all parts are matching and have us ordnance flaming bomb proofs and eagle head proofs, barrel has bomb proof with 5-18 and the Winchester W marking. The rifle is in great condition and is scoped, bore is in great condition. I i heritage this rifle ong with others...
This is a 1915 Tula Mosin Nagant M91. This is a WW1 manufacture/issued Mosin Nagant. This rifle is in its original stocks and is complete with the usual signs of wear for a 106 year old rifle. From what I could research, this is a Surbian import. Originally these rifles were imported...
This is a 1915 Tula Mosin Nagant M91. This is a WW1 manufacture/issued Mosin Nagant. This rifle is in its original stocks and is complete with the usual signs of wear for a 106 year old rifle. From what I could find out, this is one of what is called "Surbian imports." Originally...
1915 Winchester Model 1895 ".30 GOVT. 1906" Lever-Action Rifle 30.06
I don't know much about it. Been a safe-queen, time to find a new home.
(I am SO going to clean it ASAP. :) )
Here's a video overview I took a few days ago of this fine piece of history. As best I can tell, very good...
I have for sale my model 1897 shotgun in 12 gauge. Comes in the 31 inch barrel configuration. Made in 1916. This is also the takedown model so it can be broken down into 2 peices. The condition is fair. The blueing or finish is kind of rough, but the stock and everything else is in good...
Full packet of .45 ammunition for the 1911. Box is stamped with a Production date from Frankford Arsenal Sept 18, 1914. Both canvas opening tags are intact on both ends of the box. There are signs of its age as there is a split along the top seem of the box. The split extends the length of...
I am located near Tacoma, I am looking to make space in my collection due to an upcoming move and would like to trade away an instant collection of milsurps. I’m looking for something unique and would trade either multiple rifles or the entire collection for it. I like modern firearms or...
Longtime reader, first time poster. First of all let me apologize if I'm posting this in the wrong place.
I'm looking to purchase a functional (doesn't have to be beautiful) WW1 era rifle (1917 enfield, SMLE, 1903) that has all matching parts and hasn't been sporterized. I am a med...
Soldiers and trenches of WWI are revealed exactly as they looked 100 years ago | Daily Mail Online
Soldiers and trenches of WWI are revealed exactly as they looked 100 years ago in staggering colourised footage transformed by [Peter Jackson]
I've read war history for many years but have never heard of this fellow. Was up late not able to sleep and found this. Francis Pegahmagabow, best sniper of WWI.
378 KILLS: CANADA PRODUCES TOP SNIPER IN WW1 | The Royal Montreal Regiment
I thought it was interesting enough to share.