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Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. On the periodic table, it is the first (row 2) of six elements in column (group) 14, which have in common the composition of their outer electron shell. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.
Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all forms of carbon-based life, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen. This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.
The atoms of carbon can be bonded together in different ways: allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black, while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "γράφω" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring material known. Graphite is a very good conductor, while diamond has a very low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.
The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions.
^ Conventional Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
^ Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
^ Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
^ Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
^ Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
^ "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06.
^ "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06.
^ "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06.
^ a b c d e Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
^ "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
^ Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
^ "Carbon – Naturally occurring isotopes". WebElements Periodic Table. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
^ "History of Carbon". Retrieved 2013-01-10.
^ "Biological Abundance of Elements". The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
^ "World of Carbon – Interactive Nano-visulisation in Science & Engineering Education (IN-VSEE)". Retrieved 2008-10-09.
^ Chemistry Operations (December 15, 2003). "Carbon". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
Practically new, I’ve shot 40 rounds through it. Accutrigger, fluted bolt, the works. It’s got an Athlon Ares BTR Gen 2 4.5 - 27 x 50 scope in Warne rings, and I’ll throw in the rotational Harris bipod too. I also have 40 rounds of fireformed and annealed brass that I’ll throw in for free if...
For sale is a random lot of stuff I found after cleaning out the gun room. There's a carbon scraper, brass in 30-06, 308, 9mm, 38 special, 357 sig, 45 acp, 223, (the 2 boxes of ammo just contain brass, not live ammo), Glock swag, AR pistol grip, scope rings, 2 slings, LCR pouch, and more...
Carbon fiber handguard with barrel nut 10.2 oz
lightly used in excellent condition. I’m motivated to sell.
$80 shipped obo
Paypal is the preferred method of payment, other options are available
Ships USPS with tracking and usually goes out within 24 hours of payment
About a year old. Lightly used. Its opened up the belly of 2 or 3 brookies and that's it.
It has BOS 5160 carbon steel blade.
Has a little patina forming on rear bolster, but other than that its flawless. No nicks or dings.
I'm trying to decide on a rifle and I'm split on whether or not I'm okay with carbon fiber furniture.
It's light, and looks amazing at the range, but I'm looking to use this in the field. I am not unnecessarily rough on my guns, but just about everything I own has scratches and...
I thought I had this sold and buyer backed with non payment. Life got busy and I found time again to relist.
Pictures later tonight or tomorrow when I get home.
Christensen Arms Carbon Classic .300 RUM 26"( approximately 28" with muzzle brake) " Tan W/Black Webbing stocked Rifle...
Hinderer MP-1 Stonewash Bronze Ti interframe with carbon fiber inlay $525 ***traded***shipped in the US. I bought this new but never got around to carrying it. Comes as you see it and the action is very smooth and flips great! Lock up is solid and secure. Trades considered for a Hinderer Full...
I have a simple fixed-blade knife that I would like to get back in decent shape. It has some sentimental value to me. It was forgotten in a tackle box and in a decomposing leather sheath for probably 30 years. It is rusty and pitted.
What is the best way to clean it up and arrest the rusting...
New & unfired. Bought this on impulse but decided I need cash more.
300WSM, 10 twist barrel
Carbon Fiber 3-rd magazine
Titanium muzzle brake
These are currently listed at $2399 from EuroOptic
$1950 for face to face sale at West Coast Armory in Bellevue. I can ship at buyers cost.
Like new Gitzo GT2540 ultralight carbon fiber tripod for sale. It is a 4 leg tripod. The center column has been removed and a flat spacer installed to add rigidity. Makes for a great lightweight field tripod for rifles/spotting scopes/binos... retails for $799.
Buy it for less than half...
Still looking for a lighter weight precision/hunting rifle for my wife so up goes this great hunting rifle.
Christensen Arms Carbon Classic (not the cheaper Ridgeline model) in 26 Nosler. 26” 1:8 carbon barrel, stainless action with integral scope bases, trigger tech trigger, and...
Up for sale is a lightly used Volquartsen barrel for 10/22. This barrel is the UltraLite THM Tension Carbon fiber version with 1/2 X 28 threaded muzzle, thread protector, and matte black ends. It is 16.5 inches in length, about 17 inches overall. .920 inch diameter. On my digital scale, it...
Can you airgun guys recommend to me a business in the Portland metro area that will fill a Carbon Fiber Air Tank. Before I purchase a PCP airgun I need to know that there are airgun friendly local businesses that will fill my tank without hassle. I am considering a 75 cubic foot tank and it...
As rank newbie AR beginner, I've noted a considerable internet commentary on this model.
Would appreciate discussion of pros/cons of the model specific "Carbon 15" which I guess is no longer made.
I realize there was addition of a ejector port cover sometime in the model run, which also had...
Before and after pictures on a recent barrel upgrade on this new Remington 700 LR. The owner decided to go with a full 1” barrel for a awesome bull barrel look. We can install a OMR carbon barrel and break on your rifle for $599. Contact us today for details on how we can upgrade your current...