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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 50% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Carbon dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations, however at high concentrations it has a sharp and acidic odor.
As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize carbohydrates and lipids to produce energy by respiration. It is returned to water via the gills of fish and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. It is produced by combustion of wood and other organic materials and fossil fuels such as coal, peat, petroleum and natural gas. On the other hand, it is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year).
It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is added to drinking water and carbonated beverages including beer and sparkling wine to add effervescence. The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting.
Carbon dioxide is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. The CO2 released into the atmosphere as a result of the use of fossil fuels "represents [sic] 99.4% of CO2 emissions in 2013". Carbon dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.

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  1. Capn Jack

    Umarex CP88 CO2 Pistol

    If the front falls off of your Umarex CP88 it's not the end of the world. :eek: The tiny 2mm x .5mm thread screw, in the spring guide, under the barrel has stripped out. :mad: You can replace it by drilling and tapping the hole in the spring guide out to 6x32, 1/4" deeper and using a 6x32"...
  2. 41rem

    Sheridan 5mm Co2 pistol

    Picked up a nice example of the blued version at a garage sale today, it's NOS, mint condition, as new in box. Still has the "Sportwest" price tag on it from 1970 and a 4 pack of Co2 tube in the box. Anyone know of a collector? 41
  3. CountryGent

    OSS Flying Dragon: A Silent Poisoned Dart Gun

    This looks like something out of a James Bond flick. It is a CO2 powered dart gun built by the OSS. I found it interesting, so I thought I'd pass it along. Cheers.
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