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Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function. The fouling materials can consist of either living organisms (biofouling) or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic). Fouling is usually distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena in that it occurs on a surface of a component, system or plant performing a defined and useful function, and that the fouling process impedes or interferes with this function.
Other terms used in the literature to describe fouling include: deposit formation, encrustation, crudding, deposition, scaling, scale formation, slagging, and sludge formation. The last six terms have a more narrow meaning than fouling within the scope of the fouling science and technology, and they also have meanings outside of this scope; therefore, they should be used with caution.
Fouling phenomena are common and diverse, ranging from fouling of ship hulls, natural surfaces in the marine environment (marine fouling), fouling of heat-transfer components through ingredients contained in the cooling water or gases, and even the development of plaque or calculus on teeth, or deposits on solar panels on Mars, among other examples.
This article is primarily devoted to the fouling of industrial heat exchangers, although the same theory is generally applicable to other varieties of fouling. In the cooling technology and other technical fields, a distinction is made between macro fouling and micro fouling. Of the two, micro fouling is the one which is usually more difficult to prevent and therefore more important.

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  1. oli700

    Copper fouling

    curious on everyone’s thoughts on copper fouling . What’s your regimen? What do you use to clean ? Also curious on how long people go before they notice a performance loss if they go that far . And any other fact or opinion on the subject of copper fouling. I use Barnes cr10 in the clear...
  2. N Monty

    Is this rust or copper fouling in my barrel?

    Long story short- I went shooting in the rain a while ago, and thought I cleaned all my rifles. Realized recently that this one got missed, and immediately set to cleaning it. The barrel is looking kind of gross, and patches keep coming out filthy, but it seems like it's getting better. I'm...
  3. Glock Jock

    Is this rust or copper fouling?

    I have only put 60 rounds through my Bergara .30-06, went shooting yesterday and waited until today to clean it only to find this rust/copper color in my barrel after cleaning it. I have used Hoppes #9 and Hoppes Copper remover with nylon and brass brushes. It stays the same and zero rust...
  4. Koda

    Barrel fouling cleaning...

    noob question here but what is the best way to clean the fouling that builds up in the grooves along the edges of the rifling ridges?
  5. Joe Link

    Lets talk gun cleaning! How do you clean your guns, and why?

    I believe in taking good care of what I have. When it comes to my vehicles I'm a little fanatical with maintenance, with a good grasp on how to do what and when. Even though I've been shooting for a long time, I still don't feel I've achieved this when it comes to firearms. Even worse, the more...
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