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PEPR 1 and PEPR2 (Perception of the Arabidopsis Danger Signal Peptide 1 or 2) are homolog kinases that act as enzymes on other proteins. They attach a phosphate group to specific proteins, called phosphorylation. These reactions can cause the function of the phosphorylated proteins to change. Both PEPR 1 and PEPR 2 can be classified as receptor kinases, which serve an important role in immunity in plants. Receptor kinases have the ability to change the conformation of receptors by adding the phosphate group. These specific receptor kinases serve as a pattern recognition receptor, or PRR, that can quickly and efficiently recognize many different molecular patterns or signatures that are unique to each pathogen. They can also detect different danger signals released from the host and respond accordingly. More specifically, the proteins contain leucine-rich repeat segments that interact outside of the cell. This leucine-rich repeat is a structural motif present in some proteins that has specific functions due to its folded structure. This fold can contain many repeating amino acids, but the most common is the hydrophobic leucine, hence the name. PEPR1 and PEPR2 are present in plants and are involved in several immune system processes. Their ability to change the conformation of receptors can have an effect on signaling processes within plants, allowing the plant to have a system of immunity in place in case of an infection or pathogen.

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