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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.
The earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms. Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many (such as sharks) became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods.
Most fish are ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature.Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another. The production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most often used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the species and stimulus involved. They can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans (e.g., gulpers and anglerfish), although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates.Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries (see fishing) or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean (see aquaculture). They are also caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, and exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, and as the subjects of art, books and movies.

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  1. CountryGent

    Your favorite PNW seafood?

    Inspired by a couple of active threads here, I thought I'd toss this out, considering we live in a beautiful region filled with a great many ponds, lakes, streams, tributaries, rivers, and the ocean, teaming with much bounty: What are some of your favorite species from fresh and salt water...
  2. CountryGent

    Small Scale Fish Farming?

    So, for like the umpteenth time, I am rereading John Seymour's excellent Guide to Self-Sufficiency. There is a short chapter devoted to fish farming. The author states the efficiency of doing so with respect to cost, etc. to protein benefits. He recommends carp, tilapia or trout as the...
  3. P

    Idaho Fish & Game sent me a survey.

    Received a letter in the mail from Idaho Fish & Game asking me about my upland game hunting experience last season. Said I had been randomly selected from license information to participate in the survey. All sorts of questions about how many days I hunted, what species I hunted, how many...
  4. O

    anyone fish Tahkenitch lake ?

    Hello Friends, I am just getting back into fishing since I just retired and many years ago a friend took me fishing on Tahkenitch lake on the coast...it was good time ..What do you guys know?...when is the fishing best?...is it stocked?...you know average fishing questions...thanks
  5. fredball

    NOW THIS IS HOW TO FISH

  6. Caveman Jim

    Fish for everyone.

    I decided not to hijack the FF thread so I'm making a new one. In my younger fishing days I caught to have leasure time, eat and brag because my brothers and cousins we're not as good a fisherman as I was. I will tell you that we all ate well!!! I'm now an old-timer, have caught many thousands...
  7. Flymph

    First Fish of the Year!

    Post pictures of your first fish or fishing trip of the year! Doesn't matter the size or species, just that you got out fishing and caught something! Post what you used and where you caught your fish, if you so choose. Caught this in a lake near my place. Pink twerk jig with a madriver 3" glo...
  8. akimbog18

    3.5 lb on the way home!!

    The water temp was 42 degrees, black n blue jig..
  9. CountryGent

    Fishing Ethics?

    So, I have been reading a book about tuna fishing,* and the author touched upon the topic of ethics in fishing. I got to thinking about it and I could easily think of many hunting and outdoor ethics I adhere to and practice. Post childhood, I haven't done much in the way of fishing, though my...
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