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A collision avoidance system, also known as a precrash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigation system, is an automobile safety system designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision. It uses radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and camera (employing image recognition) to detect an imminent crash. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database.Once an impending collision is detected, these systems provide a warning to the driver. When the collision becomes imminent, they can take action autonomously without any driver input (by braking or steering or both). Collision avoidance by braking is appropriate at low vehicle speeds (e.g. below 50 km/h (31 mph)), while collision avoidance by steering may be more appropriate at higher vehicle speeds if lanes are clear. Cars with collision avoidance may also be equipped with Adaptive Cruise Control, using the same forward-looking sensors.
In March 2016, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety announced the manufacturers of 99% of U.S. automobiles had agreed to include automatic emergency braking systems as standard on virtually all new cars sold in the U.S. by 2022. In Europe, there was a related agreement about an advanced emergency braking system (AEBS) or autonomous emergency braking (AEB) in 2012. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has announced that this kind of system will become mandatory for new heavy vehicles starting in 2015. NHTSA projected that the ensuing accelerated rollout of automatic emergency braking would prevent an estimated 28,000 collisions and 12,000 injuries.
In India, Autonomous Emergency Braking system (AEB) could become mandatory on new cars by 2022.AEB differs from Forward Collision Warning: FCW alert the driver with a warning but does not by itself brake the vehicle.According to Euro NCAP, AEB has three characteristics:
Autonomous: the system acts independently of the driver to avoid or mitigate the accident.
Emergency: the system will intervene only in a critical situation.
Braking: the system tries to avoid the accident by applying the brakes.

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