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National Questions about Judicial oath of office


Does every kind of judge in America take an oath that includes a pledge to "support and defend", or "support", or "preserve and protect" the U.S. Constitution?

According to US Code, all federal employees take an oath that includes "support and defend".

US Code HERE describes a more relaxed federal Judicial oath.

Scotus justices take two oaths: the federal employee oath and a separate judicial oath. SCOTUS link. Or they may take a combined oath that includes both the "support-defend" and the "under" provisions.

At the state level, the court system is more expansive and variable. I looked at the U.S. Constitution element of judicial oaths in Oregon ("support"), Texas ("preserve, protect, and defend"), California ("support and defend"), and New York ("support").

At the county and municipal level, the court system is even more expansive.

I could spend a few days compiling every State and local oath into a list. Or I could ask around. ;)

Does anyone here know whether it is possible to hold office as a judge or justice at any level of government in America without first taking an oath that says at a minimum that the judge will "support the U.S. Constitution?"

Is there an authoritative source on the matter?




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